Have you notice that your older brother or sister receive an extra attention from your parents? They may have one clear reason why.
According to the recent study made by the University of Edinburgh in Scotland, first born children have mental edge over their siblings “because they receive more mental stimulation from their parents in their early years.”
“First borns also score higher than their siblings in IQ tests as early as age one,” study has found. “Although all children received the same levels of emotional support, first-born children received more support with tasks that developed thinking skills.”
‘The Birth Order Effect’
Researchers also say the findings could help to explain the so-called birth order effect “when children born earlier in a family enjoy better wages and more education in later life.”
Economists at the University of Edinburgh, Analysis Group and the University of Sydney examined data from the US Children of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, a dataset collected by the US Bureau of Labor Statistics.
Nearly 5,000 children were observed from pre-birth to age 14. Every child was assessed every two years. The tests included reading recognition, such as matching letters, naming names and reading single words aloud and picture vocabulary assessments. Information was also collected on environmental factors such as family background and economic conditions.
Observing parental behavior
Researchers applied statistical methods to economic data to analyze how the parental behavior of the child was related to their test scores.
The researchers then used an assessment tool, the Home Observation Measurement of the Environment, to observe parental behavior, including pre-birth behavior, such as, smoking and drinking activity during pregnancy, and post-birth behavior, such as, mental stimulation and emotional support.
The findings showed that advantages enjoyed by first born siblings start very early in life – from just after birth to three years of age.
The differences increased slightly with age, and showed up in test scores that measured verbal, reading, math and comprehension abilities.
Differences in mental stimulation
Researchers found that parents changed their behavior as subsequent children were born. They offered less mental stimulation to younger siblings also took part in fewer activities such as such as reading with the child, crafts and playing musical instruments.
Mothers also took higher risks during the pregnancy of latter-born children, such as increased smoking.
“Our results suggest that broad shifts in parental behavior are a plausible explanation for the observed birth order differences in education and labor market outcomes,” says Dr. Ana Nuevo-Chiquero, School of Economics.
The study is published in the Journal of Human Resources. (Source: www.ed.ac.uk)